Eighty years ago my mother was in grade school where schoolroom paste was made by mixing a little flour and water together. Memories of that simple glue came back to her when she and I recently stood in my kitchen, mixing two small batches of flour and water. First I mixed regular “better for bread” flour with water in a little dish, then I did the same with special test flour made from a new type of durum wheat. The first mixture was a pasty, lightest-of-light-tan color, the second had a pale but clearly evident yellow hue.
Durum is an unusual type of wheat, one with kernels so hard we don’t generally make it into flour at all. Instead, regular durum is ground only to about the consistency of sand-sized grains known as semolina. The semolina is then used to make pasta. In North America, durum wheat is grown in the dry parts of Montana, North Dakota and Saskatchewan, as well as in some parts of the desert southwest.
In some ways, durum is pretty primitive stuff: in the lingo of plant genetics, it’s “tetraploid” rather than “hexaploid” like most wheat. But durum has some highly desirable characteristics. It has better drought resistance and, in some instances, better disease resistance than the more common types of wheat.
It’s the hardness of the kernels of durum that has limited its culinary uses over the ages, with durum used only for pasta and couscous while softer wheat has been made into flour and transformed into bread, gravies, and all the rest of it.
Enter onto the scene wheat researcher Dr. Craig Morris of the Agricultural Research Service housed on the campus of Washington State University. For 10 years Morris has worked to use classical wheat breeding techniques to introduce the genes for a soft kernel into durum wheat. Patient work in greenhouses and ultimately a few acres of farm trials has been going on year after year.